Il lato controverso della tecnoscienza

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Siamo tutti piuttosto familiari con le discussioni pubbliche che riguardano le fonti di energia, le biotecnologie e i cambiamenti climatici, con i dibattiti sullo Immagine1sviluppo di nuovi campi di ricerca e innovazione come le nanotecnologie, con le dispute sull’installazione di nuove antenne di telefonia mobile, delle grandi opere infrastrutturali o degli impianti per lo smaltimento dei rifiuti.

Questi dibattiti rendono evidente la crescente attenzione del pubblico nei confronti del lavoro degli scienziati e degli impatti della ricerca scientifica e dell’innovazione tecnologica sulla vita quotidiana; allo stesso tempo essi espongono gli esperti a forme di visibilità pubblica e controllo da parte dei membri esterni alla comunità scientifica che erano in precedenza sconosciute.

In seguito a questi cambiamenti, la tecnoscienza è al centro di discussioni che coinvolgono non solo gli esperti, ma anche esponenti del mondo politico, media e cittadini. Emerge così il ‘lato controverso della tecnoscienza’, che si caratterizza per la diffusione di argomentazioni a prima vista irrazionali, polemiche e contraddittorie.

Le controversie tecnoscientifiche popolano ormai quotidianamente le pagine dei giornali e il Web 2.0; esse rendono evidente la centralità della tecnoscienza nella società contemporanea, ma generano allo stesso tempo interrogativi e dubbi capaci di attanagliare sia gli esperti sia il pubblico.

Esse sono discussioni particolarmente intense, partecipate e in alcuni casi accese e conflittuali. Le controversie tecnoscientifiche nascono quando la scienza e la tecnologia diventano pubblicamente rilevanti e gli esperti scoprono che il loro lavoro è discusso e dibattuto al di fuori della comunità scientifica attraverso linguaggi, codici e rappresentazioni che appaiono diverse e distanti dai loro modi usuali di interagire.

Prendiamo come esempio la controversia sui cambiamenti climatici. Qui troviamo frequentmente non solo le dispute sulle cause del riscaldamento globale, sulle misure più opportune da adottare per ridurre emissioni di gas serra inquinanti, ma anche discussioni sulle proiezioni future di innalzamento del livello dei mari, così come sul fenomeno della deforestazione e sui suoi impatti sul clima, in cui le opinioni degli esperti sono continuamente commentate, riviste, criticate e confutate, tanto dai loro colleghi scienziati, quanto da giornalisti, da attivisti e da cittadini; la rilevanza della consulenza scientifica dei climatologi è inoltre valutata in ambito politico, dove diventa materia di confronto tra la comunità scientifica e i decisori pubblici, come testimoniato dall’attività di istituzioni pubbliche come l’IPCC – il Panel intergovernativo sui cambiamenti climatici che mette a confronto a livello globale politici ed esperti di tutto il mondo. In alcuni casi si assiste anche allo sviluppo di scontri molto accesi, come è successo al vertice ONU sul clima svoltosi a Copenhagen nel dicembre del 2009, quando la polizia danese ha proceduto al fermo di numerosi attivisti ambientalisti impegnati in manifestazioni di protesta nei confronti delle politiche globali sul clima. Il vertice di Copenhagen che ha poi ospitato un confronto tra i rappresentanti ufficiali dei paesi industrializzati e di quelli in via di sviluppo, riguardante le conseguenze economiche e geopolitiche delle misure di riduzione dei gas serra decise a livello internazionale.

L’eterogeneità delle interpretazioni e delle valutazioni che i prodotti della ricerca scientifica e le innovazioni tecnologiche ottengono pubblicamente dai differenti protagonisti nel corso delle controversie è un elemento capace di catalizzare il potenziale di discussione e quindi di rendere evidenti tutte le sfide poste da quello che è stato definito il processo di ‘democratizzazione dell’expertise’.

Con questa espressione si intende indicare e riconoscere il ruolo preponderante giocato dalla tecnoscienza nella società contemporanea per la regolazione del vivere comune, non solo intermini di impatto di scoperte e innovazioni sulla società, ma anche in riferimento ai processi di comunicazione, regolamentazione e informazione che coinvolgono la scienza e la comunità degli esperti, il policy making, i media e i cittadini, ad una pluralità di livelli.

Il volume esplora questi fenomeni impiegando la lente interpretativa degli Studi Sociali sulla Scienza e la Tecnologia (STS) e fa capire perché le controversie tecnoscientifiche sono un’opportunità da non perdere per ripensare i rapporti tra scienza e società.

Nel corso del volume le teorie più innovative riguardanti la comunicazione della scienza e della tecnologia, la relazione tra scienza e policy making e la partecipazione pubblica sono passate in rassegna e interpretate in rapporto all’emergere delle controversie tecnoscientifiche.

Manifestazioni di protesta, accuse di frodi scientifiche, disorientamento causato dalla presenza di pareri scientifici in disaccordo, eresia scientifica sono tutti aspetti delle controversie che è opportuno studiare e tenere attentamente sotto controllo. Il quadro che emerge dallo studio è quello di una sfera pubblica scientifica sicuramente avvincente e piena di avvenimenti ma anche a tratti spaventevole e pericolosa: le paure e le fobie pubbliche generate dalla diffusione dell’incertezza e del pluralismo tecnoscientifico diventano infatti una nuova sfida per il raggiungimento di una matura società della conoscenza, capace di valorizzare adeguatamente i prodotti indispensabili della ricerca e dell’innovazione e allo stesso tempo, di prevenire lo sviluppo di conflitti e incomprensioni sul versante della società, coinvolgendo in modo organico tutti i differenti protagonisti. Una sfida che appare non sempre riuscita, in particolare quando prevale il disinteresse oppure la critica aprioristica nei confronti di questi fenomeni.

Anche per questo lavoro lo studio delle controversie tecnoscientifiche diventa sempre più necessario e attuale: comprendere le dinamiche dei dibattiti pubblici sugli oggetti controversi ci aiuta a non reagire con spavento, disorientamento o rifiuto nei confronti di questo lato problematico del rapporto tra scienza e società e a programmare adeguatamente iniziative di comunicazione e coinvolgimento in grado di adattarsi ai cambiamenti che a livello pubblico la stessa tecnoscienza sta apportando, consapevoli delle diverse posizioni dei protagonisti coinvolti, delle potenziali fonti di conflitto e incomprensione e dell’atteggiamento del pubblico dei non esperti.

Fenomeni come la diffusione del Web 2.0, capaci di cambiare i tratti della comunicazione globale, dei servizi e dell’economia sono piuttosto chiari in questo senso: viviamo in un mondo che non solo è sempre più tecnoscientifico ma è esso stesso organizzato e fondato sullo scambio di dati e informazioni permesso dalle infrastrutture – tecnoscientifiche – di cui ci siamo dotati.

In questo contesto le controversie tecnoscientifiche appaiono come i ‘cigni neri’ nella relazione tra scienza e società: sono eventi relativamente rari e difficilmente prevedibili ma molto visibili e su cui si basano molti fenomeni comunicativi, che ci costringono ad interrogarci sulle nostre logiche di azione, sui nostri pregiudizi e a cambiare in fretta e radicalmente atteggiamenti consolidati.

 

Andrea Lorenzet (PhD), sociologo della tecnoscienza ed esperto di comunicazione tecno scientifica, è ricercatore post-doc presso il dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata (FISPPA) dell’Università di Padova. Collabora dal 2003 alle attività di ricerca di Observa Science and Society. Il suo libro Il lato controverso della tecno scienza Nanotecnologie, biotecnologie e grandi opere nella sfera pubblica è appena stato pubblicato da il Mulino.

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