Il riconoscimento delle donne nella scienza

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La presenza delle donne nell’attività scientifica è ormai sempre più rilevante. Scorrendo i dati delle indagini più aggiornate riportate in questo volume, si notano: il crescente interesse delle donne nei confronti delle carriere scientifiche e i buoni risultati ottenuti assieme ad una capacità di qualificarsi che ha superato in alcuni casi i colleghi maschi. Questa tendenza però non trova un sostegno adeguato nelle politiche per il lavoro e la ricerca mancando, tra le altre, azioni incisive sul fronte dell’assegnazione di fondi di ricerca, per garantire adeguati livelli di stipendio e sulla possibilità per le donne di occupare posti di responsabilità dove si prendono le decisioni. Naturalmente, considerando il panorama internazionale, esistono significative differenze tra paesi, sia per quanto riguarda l’accesso alle carriere scientifiche sia per quanto concerne la possibilità offerta alle donne di occupare le posizioni apicali del controllo della ricerca. In alcuni paesi, grazie anche al meccanismo delle quote, ad esempio, è stato possibile far progredire l’influenza delle donne sulle responsabilità e sui ruoli di governo. Questo tipo di provvedimenti cercano di evitare fenomeni come quello dell’old boys network, che limitano l’accesso delle donne ai gruppi di ricerca a causa di accordi taciti tra uomini ricercatori. Anche sul fronte del work-life balance sono state adottate negli ultimi anni misure per favorire la progressione di carriera delle donne tenendo presenti le necessità legate alla maternità, ma rimane ancora molto da fare, specialmente per garantire la mobilità alle donne che hanno figli e un nucleo familiare.

Questi aspetti riguardano la presenza e il contributo che le donne offrono alla scienza nei centri di ricerca, nelle università e nelle istituzioni di governo. Una presenza che è stata promossa grazie al lavoro di organismi e istituzioni, nazionali ed europei, che hanno rivolto una specifica attenzione al tema femminile adottando iniziative di tutela ampliando le opportunità in loro favore. Tali organizzazioni contribuiscono a favorire l’accesso ai finanziamenti, l’attenzione alle donne quando vi siano candidati di sesso diverso ma uguale merito, azioni di bilanciamento dei tempi di vita e lavoro assieme a strumenti per ridurre le disuguaglianze. Tutte queste azioni hanno prodotto risultati che si possono oggi riconoscere grazie a numerosi contributi scientifici pubblicati nel corso del 2009, in particolare i documenti riguardanti le carriere scientifiche delle donne e la possibilità di accedere a finanziamenti per la ricerca pubblicati dall’Unione Europea.

Accanto alle iniziative istituzionali appena citate, si possono trovare in questo volume numerosi dati che segnalano importanti cambiamenti nella percezione che le donne hanno della scienza e nel contributo peculiare che esse offrono alla comunità internazionale. Questo è stato possibile perché si è cercato negli anni recenti di dare voce al punto di vista femminile cercando di rappresentarlo e farlo conoscere pubblicamente.

Riteniamo però che si debba sottolineare un elemento distintivo del binomio donne e scienza che è rimasto sino ad ora in ombra nel discutere del ruolo nella scienza delle donne, il termine riconoscimento. In questo ambito intendiamo il riconoscimento come una capacità delle donne e della società di valorizzare il punto di vista femminile. Non solo come utilizzo di spazi sino a qualche anno fa preclusi all’apporto delle donne, ma come possibilità di fornire all’azione scientifica un impulso nuovo, creativo, partecipando alla definizione degli obiettivi e proponendo piste di ricerca innovative. Solo favorendo questo tipo di riconoscimento si potrà sviluppare una visione più organica dell’attività scientifica e rappresentativa della differenza di genere proposta dalle donne.

Se le donne non potranno partecipare alle decisioni sulle priorità della ricerca, sui metodi, sulle questioni da indagare, non si realizzerà un pieno riconoscimento della loro presenza. Questi deficit contribuiranno a trasmettere alle nuove generazioni l’idea che non vi siano posti di prestigio per le donne e quindi che non valga la pena di intraprendere carriere scientifiche.
Come dimostrato nei contribuiti offerti nella prima parte del volume, le nuove generazioni sono tutt’altro che indifferenti alla scienza. Esse però meritano un’attenzione particolare, sin dai primi anni di scuola, perché le differenze di genere siano un potenzialità e non un limite invalicabile. Ciò vale non solo per le donne ma anche per gli uomini, dato che esistono forme di segregazione anche al maschile in alcuni campi di ricerca. A questo proposito ci preme sottolineare che in molti paesi europei è in atto un processo di formazione che tiene in grande considerazione una formazione con prospettive di genere, una formazione che valorizzi maschile e femminile superando stereotipi e preconcetti.

Molti studi riguardanti il tema donne e scienza sottolineano l’importanza di agire precocemente, sin dalla formazione delle giovani nella loro carriera scolastica perché possa divenire una vera e propria carriera scientifica (PRAGES 2009). Seguire e premiare il merito delle ragazze sin dalle prime dimostrazioni del loro talento ci sembra una strategia importante per sviluppare forme di accompagnamento e di mentoring utili a far crescere giovani scienziate. Per favorire queste azioni si richiede un forte coinvolgimento degli insegnanti, maschi e femmine, perché propongano una scienza libera da condizionamenti di genere. La scienza e la tecnologia possono trarre rilevanti benefici se le discipline sono aperte ad entrambi i generi senza segregazioni forzate o stereotipate divisioni di ruoli.

Non si deve dimenticare, infine, il ruolo che la comunicazione pubblica può giocare per rinforzare un’idea di scienza aperta a entrambi i generi senza preclusioni di sorta. La rappresentazione di scienziato o scienziata non può più essere collegata a questo o a quel personaggio storico, ma si deve modificare offrendo opportunità a maschi e femmine indistintamente. È ovvio che i media possono offrire un grande contributo in tal senso, ampliando gli spazi di protagonismo dei giovani, segnalando carriere impreviste e innovative anche là dove tradizionalmente esiste una prevalenza di uomini o donne. Valorizzare la presenza delle donne nella fisica o degli uomini nella biologia e in laboratorio potrà contribuire, ad esempio, a ribaltare vecchie concezioni che limitano gli apporti innovativi dei futuri scienziati.

In sintesi, ci sembra che porre l’attenzione al contributo che le donne possono dare oggi alla scienza e alla tecnologia sia un esercizio importante per allargare la nostra visione del mondo. Non solo per favorire l’ampliamento degli spazi per le donne ma per offrire nuove opportunità a tutti gli uomini e a tutte le donne delle nuove generazioni.

Giuseppe Pellegrini è docente di Metodologia e Tecnica della Ricerca Sociale presso l’Università di Padova. E’ membro del comitato scientifico di Observa – Science in Society e coordina la sezione “Scienza e Cittadini”.

Iulia Nechifor è responsabile dei programmi di politica scientifica e uguaglianza di genere presso l’UNESCO di Venezia – Ufficio Regionale per la Scienza e la Cultura in Europa (BRESCE).

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