Giovani donne e scienza. Percezioni e immagini della scienza tra ragazzi e ragazze

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Il tema della presenza delle donne negli studi e nelle carriere tecnico-scientifiche è ormai divenuto uno dei nodi centrali dell’agenda di istituzioni nazionali e internazionali nell’ambito delle politiche della ricerca e della formazione. La persistente difficoltà per le donne di raggiungere posizioni di rilievo nel mondo della ricerca e dell’innovazione, le cause e le possibili misure per affrontare il fenomeno alimentano da tempo un ampio dibattito tra esperti e nell’opinione pubblica. Un dibattito ravvivato da discussi interventi come quello di alcuni mesi fa da parte del Rettore dell’Università di Harvard, secondo cui le donne sarebbero ‘meno portate’ per gli studi di tipo tecnico scientifico.
Le criticità della presenza femminile in ambito tecnico-scientifico sono non di rado ricondotte all’esistenza di differenze nella percezione della scienza e delle discipline scientifiche, che tendono a formarsi in giovane età, durante i processi di socializzazione e scolarizzazione. Per questo diventa particolarmente interessante prestare attenzione agli orientamenti delle ragazze e dei ragazzi in una fascia di età – tra i 15 e i 19 anni – considerata cruciale per le scelte formative future.
Scopriamo così – dalla più recente indagine condotta da Observa – Science in society, nell’ambito dell’Osservatorio Scienza e Società e presentata in occasione dell’inaugurazione dell’Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Salute della Donna (O.N.Da)., che in questa fascia d’età le percezioni della disuguaglianza di opportunità nell’ambito degli studi e delle professioni tecnico-scientifiche non appaiono ancora particolarmente strutturate.

Un primo stereotipo che viene a cadere riguarda la percezione di una maggiore predisposizione maschile allo studio delle scienze. La maggioranza dei ragazzi e delle ragazze, infatti, non ritiene affatto che le donne siano meno portate degli uomini per le materie scientifiche. Per altro, sono proprio le ragazze ad obiettare molto più nettamente dei coetanei a questo fatto: si dichiarano in totale disaccordo il 61% delle prime, contro il 49% dei secondi. A conferma di questo atteggiamento si riscontra la tendenza, diffusa sia tra i maschi che tra le femmine, a pensare che se avessero figli li incoraggerebbero, indipendentemente dal genere, a studiare una materia scientifica all’università: quasi i due terzi di entrambi i gruppi si sono espressi favorevolmente in questo senso.

Il secondo aspetto messo in dubbio dalle nuove generazioni è il ruolo preponderante dell’educazione scolastica nel riprodurre e rafforzare le differenze di genere. Solo per una quota minoritaria – seppur non trascurabile – di ragazzi e ragazze, la scuola tende ad orientare in modo differenziato maschi e femmine rispetto ai percorsi di studio scientifici. Oltre tre quarti degli intervistati condividono l’opinione contraria, criticando in particolare l’idea che il sistema scolastico incoraggi soprattutto i maschi a studiare le materie scientifiche.
L’indagine permette anche di sfatare un altro pregiudizio molto diffuso nell’immaginario collettivo, quello di una maggiore competenza ‘tecnologica’ dei maschi: osserviamo, infatti, che di fronte ad un nuovo computer o un nuovo telefonino, i comportamenti di ragazzi e ragazze risultano identici. Il 59% dei maschi e il 55% delle coetanee, quando prendono in mano un nuovo oggetto tecnologico per prima cosa lo accendono, per provarlo. Solo un quinto dei giovani preferisce leggere le istruzioni prima di compiere qualsiasi altra azione, mentre meno di uno su dieci chiede aiuto agli amici.

Nonostante questi orientamenti, tuttavia, i giovani tra i 15 e i 19 anni non appaiono pienamente convinti che i percorsi formativi e professionali possano andare al di là delle differenze di genere ed, anzi, mostrano di avere coscienza di alcuni nodi problematici. Vale la pena notare infatti come nell’immaginario collettivo continui a prevalere la tendenza a caratterizzare alcune discipline come più ‘maschili’ (chimica, fisica, ingegneria, economia) o più ‘femminili’ (lingue, filosofia, biologia). I ragazzi di oggi, in altre parole, concordano nel ritenere che materie scientifiche e umanistiche sollecitino le attitudini di maschi e femmine in modo differenziato e che ciascun genere risulti effettivamente più portato allo studio di alcuni ambiti disciplinari. Fanno eccezione la matematica, l’astronomia e la medicina, oltre che la musica, per le quali i giovani sono largamente convinti che i due generi abbiano simili predisposizioni.
Accanto a ciò, altri due aspetti lasciano sottendere la possibilità che i giovani riconoscano l’esistenza di disuguaglianze di genere negli ambiti tecnico-scientifici. Da un lato, infatti, oltre due ragazze su tre (e oltre un ragazzo su due), concordano con un giudizio forte secondo cui ‘l’ambiente della scienza è dominato dai maschi’. D’altra parte, quasi quattro giovani su dieci – e anche in questo caso senza rilevanti divergenze di opinioni tra maschi e femmine – esprimono forti riserve sulla conciliabilità di una carriera di tipo scientifico con la cura dei figli. Si tratta di due posizioni da non sottovalutare, in quanto rilevano che le difficoltà che le donne incontrano nell’intraprendere una carriera scientifica sono ben presenti agli occhi delle fasce d’età più giovani, maschi compresi.

A fronte di queste percezioni, si possono cogliere alcune interessanti indicazioni per gli orientamenti di policy. In primo luogo, la presenza di percezioni non ancora particolarmente strutturate rispetto alla disuguaglianza di opportunità tra maschi e femmine nell’ambito degli studi e delle professioni tecnico-scientifiche indica che vi è la possibilità e lo spazio per opportune iniziative di comunicazione e sensibilizzazione durante il percorso scolastico. In secondo luogo, il fatto che le nuove generazioni, e le ragazze in prima istanza, si rifiutino di considerare le materie scientifiche una prerogativa maschile (opponendosi allo stereotipo della donna meno portata per le discipline scientifiche) va letto come uno stimolo per decisori politici e istituzioni pubbliche a rafforzare l’impegno nell’offerta di adeguate opportunità formative e professionali alle ragazze. Infine, considerando anche gli appelli lanciati a livello italiano ed europeo sul declino di interesse delle nuove generazioni per i percorsi formativi scientifici, si sottolinea la necessità di rivolgere un’attenzione maggiore, e quindi uno studio più approfondito, alle dinamiche e ai fattori che concorrono alla formazione delle percezioni e delle visioni della scienza e delle carriere scientifiche, al fine di incoraggiare un maggiore interesse dei giovani – e in particolare delle ragazze – per gli studi scientifici.

L’articolo in versione ridotta è stato pubblicato l’8 marzo 2006 sull’inserto TuttoScienzeTecnologia de La Stampa.
Articolo, dati e note metodologiche sono disponibili in allegato

La rilevazione è stata condotta tramite interviste telefoniche con metodo CATI su un campione di 449 casi, rappresentativo della popolazione italiana di età compresa tra i 15 e i 19 anni.

L’immagine è stata realizzata da un bambino di quinta elementare ed è tratta dalla tesi di laurea in Scienze della Comunicazione di Anna Cirelli, dal titolo “Bambini e Scienza. Lo Science Center come luogo per esplorare e sviluppare le conoscenze scientifiche”.

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