Banca del DNA

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Accedere ai dati genetici per una maggiore tutela della sicurezza. È un tema delicato che anima il dibattito pubblico, contrapponendo le esigenze collettive alle garanzie di privacy dei singoli.
L’annuncio dell’imminente esame da parte del Consiglio dei Ministri Italiano del provvedimento che vorrebbe istituire la banca dati nazionale del Dna, lo ha riportato all’ordine del giorno dell’agenda politica e mediale.

Nonostante le reazioni controverse emerse nell’ambito del dibattito politico, è molto probabile l’opinione pubblica italiana accolga con favore la proposta.

Un’indagine promossa dal Comitato Nazionale per la Biosicurezza e le Biotecnologie e realizzata da Observa, che ha anticipato molti degli elementi cruciali del dibattito, evidenzia infatti che la grande maggioranza degli Italiani è favorevole non solo all’utilizzo degli esami del dna nell’ambito della lotta alla criminalità (80%) ma anche a conservare i dati sul DNA di criminali e sospettati in una banca dati a disposizione delle Forze dell’Ordine.

In vista di una più efficace lotta alla criminalità, la disponibilità degli Italiani a permettere alle autorità l’utilizzo delle tecniche d’indagine più sofisticate, tra cui la raccolta e l’esame dei profili genetici è amplissima.

Secondo l’indagine, discussa anche in presenza di Luciano Garofano. Comandante dei RIS Carabinieri di Parma, il 90% dei cittadini sarebbe disposto a rendere accessibili le proprie informazioni personali in vista di una maggior tutela della propria sicurezza: oltre il 60% lo farebbe addirittura su ogni tipo di informazione relativa alla sua persona.
Sfiora l’80%, come si diceva, la quota di quanti sarebbero nel complesso favorevoli all’utilizzo degli esami del DNA nell’ambito della lotta al crimine. Almeno un Italiano su due (57,2%), in particolare, è favorevole al prelievo della saliva per qualsiasi tipo di crimine, mentre poco meno di uno su tre (30,6%) ne vincolerebbe l’impiego a particolari tipi di reati, come la violenza sessuale, l’omicidio o il terrorismo.

Va notato comunque che non sempre la disponibilità all’utilizzo degli esami del DNA si accompagna ad una piena comprensione della loro natura e delle loro potenzialità. Se quasi il 90% individua nei campioni di sangue e saliva un materiale suscettibile di essere usato per estrarre il DNA, oltre il 30% ritiene che anche un’impronta digitale possa prestarsi a fornire lo stesso tipo di informazioni; inoltre per una quota non trascurabile di intervistati, questi esami sono potenzialmente in grado di rivelare anche predisposizioni a svolgere certi lavori o inclinazioni a compiere atti criminali.

L’indagine mette poi in luce come la grande maggioranza degli Italiani (l’85%) consideri effettivamente giusto conservare i dati del DNA di criminali e sospettati in una speciale banca dati a disposizione delle forze dell’ordine. La percentuale di favorevoli resta al 60% anche quando si parla di creare una banca dati del DNA a scopo identificativo estesa a tutti i cittadini.
Il motivo principale dei contrari ad un simile archivio è il rischio di violazione della privacy (59,2% dei contrari); ma non manca chi teme che la creazione di un archivio centrale possa “aprire la strada alla schedatura di massa” (20,6%) oppure possa favorire la discriminazione nell’ambito del lavoro (18%).
Chi invece è favorevole ne consentirebbe l’accesso in primo luogo alle Forze dell’Ordine (90% dei favorevoli) e in secondo luogo alla Protezione Civile (74%) per l’identificazione delle vittime nel caso di calamità naturali e agli scienziati (71%) per migliorare le loro conoscenze da utilizzare poi in ambito investigativo.

Il rapporto completo della ricerca è disponibile qui

L’indagine è stata condotta tramite interviste telefoniche su un campione di 1011 casi rappresentativo della popolazione italiana sopra i 15 anni; la supervisione scientifica è di Federico Neresini (Università di Padova), Massimiano Bucchi (Università di Trento) e Giuseppe Pellegrini (Università di Padova) in collaborazione con Valeria Arzenton.

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